According to The New England Historic and Genealogical Society - Vol. 104, page 36
[contributed by Hallock P. Long of Washington D.C.]

I - The first of the name was ROBERT LONGE, who arrive at Plymouth on the "Ann" in 1623 and shared in the distribution of lots there shortly thereafter. He did not share in the distribution of cattle in 1627, and is thought to have either removed or died prior to that year. (Morton;Savage). No connection has been found between him and ROBERT LONGE, gent., from Bristol to Jamestown, Va., 18 Sept. 1620, on the "Supply" (Hills), nor with ROBERT LONGE, on the 1624 muster Basses Choyse, Va., born in Virginia, so of RICHARD, aged 33, and Alice, aged 23, who came to Virginia in 1620 on the "London Merchant" (Totten). No descendants have been traced to any of them.

II - JOSEPH LONG, son of Joseph Longe, gent. Of Broad Magna, Dorset (Dorchester), England, who early settled in Dorchester, New England (Mass.). Record of his arrival has not been found, but he may well have been one of the original settlers who arrived in June 1630 on the "Mary and John" with Winthrop's fleet, coming from Dorchester, England, where his father was a member of the Dorchester Company. His wife was Mary, daughter of William Lane, who was in Dorchester, Mass, as early as 1636. She married secondly, Joseph Farnsworth, and thirdly, Joseph Wilcox Jr. Her will, dated 3 April 1671, is on file at Hartford, Conn.

Joseph and brothers Giles, Jasper, and William, and sisters Elisabeth and Anne, all dead in 1655, except William Longe, gent., a younger half-brother, then living in Dorchester, England. Joseph returned to England for the settlement of his father's estate, and was last heard of from London prior to 22 May 1651, on which date the court in Massachusetts Bay Colony, believing him dead, gave his wife liberty to remarry.

The father, Joseph Longe, of Broad Magna, Dorset, appears to be identical with Joseph Longe of Frome Bassett, Dorset, 1606, son of Gyles Longe, innholder of London, Holborn St. Sepulchres Next Newgate, whose will in 1607 names a sister Elizabeth, a brother John, London innholder, kin Gyles and John Longe, London innholder, and children Robert, White Swan Inn, Anne, Richard, White Swan Inn, Joseph, Jacob (or James), and Gyles. Robert Longe, 1590-1663, innholder of Charlestown, Mass., Dunstable and St. Albans, near London, is thought to belong to this family.
Joseph and Mary (Lane) Long were parents to Joseph (d. 26 Aug. 1676) Dorchester, Mass.; m. 3 Dec 1661 by the Governor to Mary ---), and Thomas (Estate administered 4 Feb 1711/12, Hartford, Conn; m. (1) 1666, Sarah Wilcox, b. 1648; m. (2) Sarah Elmer.) Many Connecticut and Vermont Longs trace back to Thomas, but no descendants from Joseph have been traced beyond his children.
New England Families in England, Emmerton & Waters
The Register, 9:140,100:220; 100:328;Mass. Archives, 9:16
Records of the Colony of Mass. Bay, p. 232
Long Family of Dorchester and Conn., by Mary (Wood) Bates, 1931 (MSS at NEGH Soc. Library).

III - ROBERT LONGE, innkeeper, died at Charlestown Mass 9 Jan. 1663/4, aged 73. He appears to belong to the London family of innholders, referred to in No. II supra, and left London 7 July 1635 on the "Defense," bringing with him a certificate signed by the minister and justice of the peace at Dunstable, Bedfordshire, listing the names and ages of his second wife, his ten children, and his servants. His first wife was Sarah, 1595-1631, daughter of John and Margaret (Willmote) Taylor, whom he married 5 Oct 1614. His second marriage was Elizabeth, aged 84 in 1687. (Surname and date of marriage not found). His children were Michael (m. Joanna -- ), Sarah (m. Abraham Hill), Robert (m. Elizabeth Hawkins), Elizabeth (m. James Parker), Anne (m. James Converse), Mary (m. Simon Kempthorn), Rebecca (m. Elias Rowe), John (m. Mary Norton; Mary Nowell); Zachary (m. Sarah Tidd; Mary Burr; Sarah Foster); Joshua (no marriage recorded), Hannah (m. Henry Cockery; Luke Perkins); Ruth (m. William Whalen), and Deborah (no marriage found); all born between 1615 and 1642. In 1636 he started the "Three Cranes Inn" or "Grand Ordinary" at Charlestown, which remained in his family for nearly a century. The building had been built in 1629 at the foot of town hill. It was occupied by the First Church of Charlestown and later was called the "Great House" and used as the Town Hall. It was burned down 17 June 1777, when Charlestown was set afire by British troops evacuating the city. The Long family on Nantucket, and probably other parts of the cast, trace back to him.

On the registers of the Cathedral at St. Albans, near London, are recorded the births of six of his children between 1615 and 1629, as is his first marriage. They also record births to John Longe, a sidesman, of Marie 1594, and John 1596, and the marriage in 1619 of John Longe (Jr.) to Dorothy Robbins (d. 1641) and 2nd to Elizabeth Simmons; there were born to him John 1624, Thomas 1627, Robert 1630, Gyles 1635 (d. in infancy), and Ann 1643. The register also recites births to a Richard Longe of Elizabeth 1608, Francis 1609, Richard 1612, and Jane 1614. The registers begin with 1594 and it is very probable that Robert, born 1590 (of Charlestown), and Richard, married before 1608, were also sons of John, the sidesman, and born before the registers were commenced in 1594, and thus brothers of the recorded Marie 1594 and John (Jr.) 1596. Names, vocation, and dates strongly suggest that these Longs belong to the London family of innholders treated in the No. II, supra. It is possible that John Longe, St. Albans sidesman 1594 (probably father of Robert Longe, Charlestown innholder, b. 1690) was identical with John Longe, London innholder, 1607, the brother named in will of Gyles Longe (probable grandfather of Joseph Long, to Dorchester about 1630).
Genealogies and Estates of Charlestown, Wyman
Registers of St. Albans Cathedral, England

IV - RICHARD LONG, Weymouth, Mass. is mentioned by both Pope and Savage, around 1635. Nothing definite has been found on him, but in 1639, Richard Long, merchant of Bristol and part owner of the "Mary Rose" averred that for many years he had adventured to Newfoundland and other western parts and was granted permission by the Privy Council in England to transport 120 passengers to New England. His will dated 1649, files in Bristol 1651, names brothers John and Thomas, his mother Mary, and his wife Eleanor (Jackson). Fownes wills 1609-1637, filed in Bristol and Plymouth, England, refer to him as kinsman, and in 1637 to his having children.
Pioneers of New England, Pope; Gen. Dict. Of New Engl., Savage
1651 Abstr. 424 PCC Soc. Gen. London, notes
The Register

V - ROBERT LONG, deacon, died 27 Dec 1690, aged 69 at Newbury, Mass. He is said to have been in Charlestown, 1637-1642, and he was in Newbury by 1645, the first of several Longs to appear in Essex (Old Norfolk) County around this time. He married Alice (d. 1691) daughter of Henry Short from Coventry, Wiltshire, and there are indications that he had first married a Stevens. They had issue Mary (m. Jonathan Griffin;Daniel Mussiloway), Abiel (m. Hannah Hills), Susannah (m. Stephen Blanford), Shubael (m. Hannah Merrill), John (no record of marriage), Martha (m. John Griffin), and Rebecca (m. Nicholas Rawlins), all born between 1647 and 1699. There are indications that he was related to Benjamin Long, Haverhill youth 1640-51, and to Richard Long, d. 194 Salisbury (No. VIII, infra). Descendants have been traced to New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont, as well as northeastern Massachusetts.
Early Family of Salisbury, Hoyt
Published Newbury Vital Records
Probate Records of Essex County, 3:345-7

VI - PHILLIP LONG, landowner, Ipswich, 1647, deposed in 1658 he was aged about 40. He was of Boston 1652, and in 1659 executed a will in contemplation of a sea voyage. Later in that year, it was filed by his wife who was appointed executrix upon assumption he had been lost at sea. Apparently this was an error and he was later in Edgartown, Martha's Vineyard, Mass. Name of first wife not found, but he married, secondly, Anne, widow of Thomas Costable, and had issue Joseph, 1652-1692, Philip, d. 1726, E.Greenwich R.I., Sarah (m. 1656, Benj. Briscoe), and others, perhaps including Abigail 1682-1774 m. Jeremiah Pierce Jr. E. Greenwich. Savage also says he had a brother, SAMUEL LONG, in Ipswich 1648, and he may also be kin to ROGER LONG, found there about the same time.
Pope and Savage

VII - WILLIAM LONG, mariner of Charlestown, married Widow Hannah (Ballentine) Brokin, 1634-1718, and had issue William, b. 1671, Jonathan, b. 1672, Hannah, b. 1673 (m. John Whittlesey), and John, b. 1677. He executed releases to the Ballentine heirs in 1680-81. Nothing further is known of him, but he may be ancestor of the Longs on Cape Cod. No connection has been found between him and Robert of Charlestown, No. III, supra, nor between him and Nicholas Long, aged 19, 1635, to Boston on the "Blessing;" Nathaniel Long, first husband of Elizabeth Hawkin, who m. (2) 1649 at Boston; and Henry Long who arrived in Boston with his family in 1685.

VIII - RICHARD LONG, house carpenter of Salisbury, was killed by Indians 4 Sept. 1694, and is first recorded in Salisbury 1671. He married, 21 July 1680, Ann, 1659-1731, daughter of Joseph and Susan (Stacy) French, and they had issue Elizabeth (m. John Clough); William (m. Ruth Eastman; Sarah Shepard; Deborah Tongue); Richard (m. Sarah Coker); Susannah (perhaps m. Eaton); Joseph (d. unmarried); Sarah (d. infancy); Elinor (m. Nathaniel Mason); and Sarah (m. Wm. Russell), all born between 1680 and 1693. His widow married second Thomas Mudgett and third Alexander Magoon of Kingston N.H. He was recognized as a kinsman by Robert Long of Newbury (No. V, supra) and may have been born in New England, but his parentage has not been found. Descendants have been traced in Eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine.
Early Families of Salisbury, Hoty
Land Records, Mass & N.H.

IX - A group of Longs arrived in New England shortly after 1700, who appear to be of Scotch-Irish origin and not related to the foregoing.They include:
JOHN LONG, 1729 to Boston and Taunton; descendants western Massachusetts
PIERCE LONG, 1730 to Portsmouth N.H.; descendants to Maine or Vemont
MILES LONG, 1770, N.C. to Plymouth, Mass., descendants to Maine
MICHAEL LONG, 1736-1826, Boston to Maine